PROYECTO FINALISTA EUROPAN X, JÄRVENPÄÄ, FINLAND
The strategy to continue occupying the territory of Ristinummi, in Järvenpää, is formulated starting from the setting in value of the elements that qualify this landscape: the variation between the fields and the inhabited hills, the forested areas, the strong presence of the water, of the lake, of its net of roads, highways and communication infrastructures. The proposal establishes relationships among them, hybridizing them with the new housings to build a contemporary landscape, commited with the tradition that balances the natural environment with the appropiation of these resources.
>With general character:
The cultivations, the hill and the valley
The lines of the cultivations are prolonged in appearances on the land, which is altered in a movement of lands that structures and organizes the new establishment of housings. The excavation of the land and the storing of the material extracted in another position, they give place to a topography of valleys and hills that, besides building a singular landscape, it defines the public space from the private one for a position, not for a hedge.
The housings are located leaning on the hills, liberating the floor at inferior bench marks in a continuous public space that goes increasing its gradient of privacy toward the summits, where the external spaces are reserved to the housings like terraces that lean out to the landscape.
The high bench mark in which the housings are located, improves the amount of sunlight, the views on the landscape and the conditions of habitability.
The roads, the clearings and the forest
The use of the urban and communications infrastructures, existent inside the performance area, determines the localization and the morphology of the plot of housings that concentrates next to the roads of vehicular traffic to facilitate the access, and integrates some of the dispersed nuclei of pre-existent housings.
In strategic points, as the limits of more consolidated residential nuclei or the main accesses, the housings group in block, according to the most urban condition in these localizations.
These ordination yardsticks delimit gaps that conserve their traditional landscape, and they can be cultivated, or perform as a great, public space of natural character.
The existent groves incorporate as a valuable landscape and productive resource, since the wood is the main option as a sustainable element for construction, besides its value inside the Nordic tradition. From an ecological point of view, the energy to manufacture it is null, and the necessary one for its transformation is very inferior to the employed in other processes of constructive systems, reducing the emissions of CO2.
When being constructions of a single high story, it allows to use it as structural element without an excessive cost.
It’s intended a process in which the permanency of the forests is guaranteed, since the quantity of trees used for the construction of a phase of housings is reforested; a speculative operation gives place to the characterization of a dynamic landscape in which the arboreal areas are displaced.
The dispersed city, the inhabited tradition
The colony of pre-existent housings has the peculiarity of being occupied by artists who develop their work in there. The new housings hold this typology of mixed use, enlarging their possibilities in a space system that allows a multiplicity of activities. To achieve it, one works with the diversity of size of the housings, and the position of two accesses to facilitate the segregation of independent spaces. It is sought a hybridization of uses to exist where the spaces can be dedicated to the home, to the work, to the small business, even to segregate another housing, rent apartment, temporary lodgings…
This diversity of uses, not programmed, that is decided and introduced by the user, endows these new establishments – in function of his/her demand – with services, and makes them work in an independent way; the city is not understood as a built unit, associated to a center, but as different nuclei related with the landscape.
The patio house in Järvenpää
The housing takes it form starting from a single continuous space, surrounding a patio; to get a better sunlight, the Northern area rises in relation to the Southern one. To build an own landscape in which the house looks at herself or it looks for the views of the forests and the lake.
The house is conceived as a closed or half-open continuous space, places that dilute the facade between the exterior and the patio. Inside, there are interposed chambers that organize the space without breaking its continuity. This differentiation is related with the air conditioning grade, as the chambers with a higher grade of comfort are located in these cells.
Starting from these approaches, the block of housings is understood like a great house that segregates others of smaller dimension. Each house is separated from another by a shared half-open space, in a sequence that has to do with the number of units harbored by this macro-structure. A symbiosis takes place between the housing and the public space, since the position of the patio coincides with the valleys and, therefore, the floor that occupies is of public use, contributing to the public space with indoor areas in the house.
>With particular character
The valleys: Water landscape
The water, so ingrained to the landscape of this place, plays its part in the characterization of the topography of hills and valleys. During the winter, the snow accumulates in the valleys, under the houses, reflecting the light; and later, during the thaw, it circulates among them or floods them. It builds a mutable and dynamic landscape that allows diverse uses, from the skating in winter to the summery swimming.
The hills: energy catalysts and storing of infrastructures
The facilities of the housing are located under the hills and the fillers take advantage as accumulators of geothermal energy that is distributed to the housings through the radiant floor for warming them up.
The use of the wood
With clear references of the laminate and curved wood Nordic tradition, it is chosen as a material able to be useful, from the structure until the finish so much interior as external of the housing.
An encircling lattice that can solve blind panes or studdings for the half-open spaces, or the light entries.
Arquitectos> DJarquitectura (Juana Sánchez, Diego Jiménez)
Colaboradores> Julia Lillo y Aurelio Dorronsoro